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Illinois Department of Natural Resources
February 2022
February 1, 2022
Photo courtesy of Morguefile: https://morguefile.com/p/1002941

The Ducks are Moving

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By Pam Otto

Many people view the American robin as a sign of spring but—confoundingly—it pops up throughout Illinois all winter long. Perhaps a truer prediction that our seasons are changing are redheads.

Say what??

I know, it sounds weird. But just for today, set aside your pop-culture interpretations of the word—your Lucille Ball, your Prince Harry, your Little Mermaid—and get ready to meet one really wild redhead: Aythya americana, or the redhead duck.

A redheaded duck with a black breast and gray back pauses on the shore of a wetland.
Photo by Giannino Nalin.

Redheads are named for the distinctive coloration of the male’s head, which in bright sunlight is a close match to Ms. Ball’s fiery locks. Other distinguishing characteristics are yellow eyes, a blue-gray bill with a pale stripe and black tip, and grayish body and wings. These features help distinguish redheads from the canvasback, another species with males that have reddish heads. 

But what makes redheads—the ducks—so fascinating to me is the one-two punch of 1) their relative rarity in some portions of Illinois and 2) their curious approach to reproduction.

Redheads typically show up in Illinois as the cold weather is waning. They are a species that overwinters across the southern United States and breeds primarily in the prairie pothole region of the upper Midwest. Individuals appear in Illinois on their north by northwest journey, and seeing them is a sure sign that spring is on its way. 

After arriving at the breeding grounds, Mama redhead (who, by the way, is mostly brown, with a dark-tipped bill) will size up the situation. What is the condition of the cover, or the cattails and rushes, in which she will make her home? How is the water level? How much food is available? How are the neighbors? She’ll also take stock of her own qualities, namely her age and whether her fat reserves are in good shape. (Being able to pinch an inch is a good thing, when you’re a duck in breeding season.)

After assessing the situation, she will proceed with one of several breeding strategies. If food and cover are plentiful, she may go ahead and make her own nest, lay her own eggs, incubate them and then raise her own young. But if any of those requirements are lacking, she likely will alter her approach and either lay some eggs in her own nest and some at the neighbors; lay all of her eggs in neighboring nests; or lay no eggs at all.

Although passing genes along is critical, forgoing breeding in a given year may ensure survival to breed in a future year, and be an acceptable long-term strategy. But one of those other alternatives—known as brood parasitism—make redheads fascinating indeed.

A brown mother duck leads her small brown and yellow baby ducks across a wetland. In the background are green cattails and vegetation.
Photo by Dave Menke, USFWS.

The intrigue lies not so much in that they may decide to drop eggs in other ducks’ nests—many duck species actually do so, including wood ducks, goldeneyes, buffleheads, mergansers and ruddy ducks. But these other species typically are intraspecific brood parasites—they seek out nests made by members of their own species.

Redheads, however, are unique in that they are highly adaptive. They not only will lay eggs in other redhead nests, but also in the nests of other species—especially canvasbacks, but also mallards, scaups and gadwalls. Basically, whatever ducky home that might be handy. 

Typically, Mom redhead will wait until a nest is unattended, then waddle over and drop her future duckling off. But sometimes female redheads will take a more forceful approach, pushing their way in, and under, another nesting female. With the resident female dislodged, the redhead becomes queen of the hill, at least for a few minutes. Which, as it turns out, is all the time she needs to lay an egg, then leave.

A group of various wild ducks dabble, forage, and rest in a harvested agricultural field. In the background are bushes.
Photo by John Magera, USFWS.

Redheads dive when feeding, but also dabble for food along the water’s surface, so there are lots of great spots to look for this duck. Look for areas where waterfowl gather, then look closely at each bird; species tend to mingle at this time of year. Just be sure to practice appropriate protocol. As a migratory species, redheads are a little more wary than our resident mallards and Canada geese. Move slowly and quietly, and chances are good you’ll be rewarded with a look at this grand species—handsome in its own right, but also a sign that spring is just around the corner.


The images is a logo for St. Charles Park District. The logo has a person riding a bicycle on top of a leaf which is all over waves at the bottom of the graphic. Three flying birds are in the background at the top.

Pam Otto is the outreach ambassador for the St. Charles Park District. She can be reached at (630) 513-4346 or potto@stcparks.org.

This article is adapted from Good Natured, a column that runs in the Kane County Chronicle. For more nature-related articles, visit the Good Natured page.

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